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The VRayPhysicalCamera allows you to use real-world parameters to set up the virtual CG camera (e.g. f-stop, lens focal length etc). It also makes it easier to use light sources with real-world illumination (e.g. VRayLight with physical units, or VRaySun and VRaySky).
Type - determines the type of the camera. This mostly has an effect on the motion blur effect produced by the camera:
Still camera - simulates a still photo camera with a regular shutter.
Cinematic camera - simulates a motion-picture camera with a circular shutter.
Video camera - simulates a shutter-less video camera with a CCD matrix.
Targeted - specifies whether the camera has a target in the 3ds Max scene or not.
Film gate - specifies the horizontal size of the film gate in milimeters. Note that this setting takes into account the system units configuration to produce the correct result.
Focal length - specifies the equivalen focal length of the camera lens. This setting takes into account the system units configuration to produce the correct result.
Zoom factor - specifies a zoom factor. Values greater than 1.0 zoom into the image; values smaller than 1.0 zoom out. This is similar to a blow-up rendering of the image.
Horizontal offset - horizontally offsets the field of view of the camera as a fraction of the current view. For example a value of 0.5 will offset the camera one half of the current image width to the left.
Vertical offset - vertically offsets the field of view of the camera as a fraction of the current view. For example a value of 0.5 will offset the camera one half of the current image height upwards.
Target distance - the distance to the camera target for a targeted camera.
f-number - determines the width of the camera aperture and, indirectly, exposure. If the Exposure option is checked, changing the f-number will affect the image brightness.
Distortion - specifies the distortion coefficient for the camera lens. A value of 0.0 means no distortion; positive values produce "barell" distortion, while negative values produce "pillow" distortion.
Distortion type - determines what distortion formula is used when the Distortion value is not zero:
Quadratic this is the default distortion type. It uses a simplified formula that is easier to calculate than the Cubic method.
Cubic this is the distortion type used in some camera tracking programs like SynthEyes, Boujou etc. If you plan on using one of these programs, you should use the Cubic distortion type.
Vertical shift and Horisontal shift - allow the simulation of shift lenses for 2-point perspective. Changing these parameters is similar to applying a Camera correction modifier. Use the and Guess horiz buttons in order to achieve the 2-point perspective.
Specify focus - this allows you to specify a focus distance different from the camera target distance.
Exposure - when this option is on, the f-number, Shutter speed and ISO settings will affect the image brightness.
Vignetting - when this option is on, the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras is simulated. You can also specify the amount of the vignetting effect, where 0.0 is no vignetting and 1.0 is normal vignetting.
White balance - allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. Note that only the color hue is taken into consideration; the brightness of the color is ignored. There are several presets that can be used, most notably the Daylight preset for exterior scenes.
Shutter speed - the shutter speed, in inverse seconds, for the still photographic camera. For example, shutter speed of 1/30 s corresponds to a value of 30 for this parameter.
Shutter angle - shutter angle (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.
Shutter offset - shutter offset (in degress) for the cinematic camera.
Latency - CCD matrix latency, in seconds, for the video camera.
Film speed (ISO) - determines the film power (i.e. sensitivity). Smaller values make the image darker, while larger values make it brighter.
These parameters control the bokeh effects when the Depth-of-field option is on.
Blades - defines the shape of the camera aperture. When this option is off, perfectly circular aperture is simulated. When on, a polygonal aperture is simulated, with the given number of blades.
Rotation - defines the rotation of the blades.
Center bias - defines a bias shape for the bokeh effects. Positive values make the outer edge of the bokeh effects brighter; negative values make the center of the effect brighter.
Anisotropy - allows stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically to simulate anamorphic lenses.
There parameters control the sampling for the virtual camera.
Depth-of-field - turns on depth of field sampling.
Motion blur - turns on motion blur sampling.
Subdivs - determines the number of samples (rays) for calculating depth of field and/or motion blur.
These parameters control various other aspects of the camera.
Horizon line - turns on and off the display of the camera horizon line in the viewport.
Clipping - turns on and off camera clipping.
Near/far clipping range - the near/far clipping range, when Clipping is on.
Near/Far environment range - the near/far environment range (used by some atmospheric effects in 3ds Max).